The optoelectronics industry has development rapidly in recent years, which has formed the professional and large-scale optoelectronics industrial chain. However, there is no unified standard designed for the choosing and installation of the optoelectronics products. In addition, the unscientific configuration of the system will not only increase the cost, but speed up the aging of the parts. This article will introduce the choosing and installation methods of the solar street light.
A. The solar battery
The solar battery can form different voltage degree, current and power through the series and parallel of the photovoltaic module. The widely used solar batteries are the monocrystalline silicon solar battery, polycrystalline silicon solar battery and the amorphous silicon solar battery. In the eastern and western area with abundant sunshine, it is better to adopt the polycrystalline silicon solar battery, for the production process of the polycrystalline silicon is simple, and the price is lower than that of the monocrystalline silicon solar battery, moreover, the transformation efficiency is increased in recent years. However, in the southern area with insufficient sunshine, it is better to use the monocrystalline silicon solar batter, for the monocrystalline silicon solar battery is relatively stable. And the amorphous silicon solar battery can be used when the sunshine is weak indoors, for the amorphous solar battery has low demand on the sunshine condition.
The crystalline silicon PV module should meet the standard of GB/T9535, and the amorphous silicon PV module should meet the standard of GB/T18911. The crystalline silicon PV module must be sealed by the toughed glass special for the crystalline silicon PV module. The minus deviation between the practical power and the nominal power cannot be over 5%. There cannot exist the severe macroscopic irregularity that is regulated by the GB/T9353 or GB/T18911. If the power of the needed solar battery module is over 85w, it will be better to use to modules to decrease the windage to increase the wind resistance ability of the solar street light.
B. The solar street light controller
The solar street light controller
is the center of the whole system. For the output energy of the solar battery is unstable and deficient, the controller must be equipped to control the charge& discharge to extent the service life of the accumulator and the light load to avoid the overcharge or over discharge of the accumulator. The controller has the protective measures toward short circuit, overload, and recovery.
The charge control of the controller can use the mode of PWM pulse modulation with the function of temperature compensation. Except for the light control and time control toward the light load, there should be the function of power adjust at night with few people to save energy, which can also decrease the allocation of the solar panel to save cost.
C. The energy storage accumulator
The accumulator must be equipped for the solar street light to provide continuous and stable energy for the light load, for the output energy of the solar battery has the characteristics of unstable. The colloid lead-acid battery is widely applied nowadays, and the unlay and vulcanization resistance of it is suitable for the working condition of the solar street light.
The choosing of the capacity of the accumulator should store energy the absorbed in the daytime by the solar panel as much as possible under the premise to satisfy the needs of the night illuminating, and the energy should be stored to satisfied the needs of illuminating on continuous rainy and cloudy days.
Limited by the cost and influenced by the natural factors like sunshine intensity, the configuration of the power of the solar battery is insufficient, and the energy cannot output as the continuously alternating current, especially under the condition of low temperature, the lead-acid accumulator may have the maximum charge acceptance efficiency.
The wire used by the photovoltaic system is the BVR double sheathed flexible cord. The installation angle of the solar battery module in China is always toward south, and guarantee that there is no shelter shadow on the front surface. The angle should take the Radiation Parameter Table of the Main Cities of China as reference, and the best angle of Nanjing, Jiangsu is 37°. If the solar street light is installed in north China, the angle to keep the snow falling down should be taken into consideration. There should not be other direct light above the solar panel to avoid the happening of mistake operation. The light should be tested after installation to see its work condition. The terminal block of the controller should face the ground to avoid getting wet in the rain. In the testing of the system, the time control should be adjusted according to the designed time, which can only equals or less than the designed value. The order of connection of the controller is that the accumulator first, then the solar panel, and the load last, and the disassemble should be in the reversed order.
There are much professional knowledge involved in the solar street light system. If the modules can be chosen scientifically, designed match, and installed correctly, the service time and cost performance will be increased greatly.